Monday, May 25, 2020

Christian History And The Holy Spirit Essay - 1496 Words

Christian history is active and alive as the Holy Spirit works in and amongst the community of Christians who comprise the Church. Similar to the recording of history in the first century by Luke in the Acts of the Apostles, Christian history is still being written today. Specifically, as Evangelical Christians, we write the story of history each day as we work to fulfill the Great Commission (Matthew 28:16-20) through application of the Great Commandment (Matthew 22: 37-40). As such, we soon realize that we are not casual observers or bystanders of history, but actual participants. In other words, we have a responsibility to both understand and interpret the past and then apply the faith we hold amongst the generation and peoples of the here and now. As we obediently apply God’s word to, â€Å"go therefore and make disciples of all nations† and to â€Å"love God and to love your neighbor as yourself,† we should awaken to the key terms of â€Å"all nations† and â€Å"your neighbor.† It is with this realization that our neighbors, in the communities in which we live, literally represent the nations of the world. In other words, in the modern world in which we live, changes in demographics, world events, and movements of people have literally brought the nations of the world to our front door. As such, we have a great opportunity to open these doors, which turn opens the door to the gospel to the nations of the world. Washington State in general and the South Puget Sound Region in particular areShow MoreRelatedUnusual Phenomena That Took Place Under God s Divine Spirit1593 Words   |  7 Pagesunusual phenomena’s that took place under God’s divine spirit. According to Anderson he asserts, the New Testament â€Å"Bears witness to unusual manifestations of the Spirit, especially in the book of Acts in the bible†¦Paul addresses this in his first letter to the Corinthians in Corinth in which he describes his Charismata in speaking of tongues, prophecy and miraculous healings stemmed from the early church in the first century.† (Anderson). And the charismata experience had a profound and lastingRead MoreThe Church And Its Impact On The Evangelical Church1073 Words   |  5 Pages Living in a post Christian world presents a number of challenges or, depending on one’s perspective, opportunities, for the evangelical church. Many Christian terms, once considered common vernacular, have become abstruse or even obsolete to the ordinary person. Christians, especially those holding positions of leadership in churches, now find themselves in need of answers to theological questions that forego the use of theological language. Few theological concepts rival, in difficulty of understandingRead MoreThe Spiritual Gift Of Apostles And Prophets1087 Words   |  5 Pagesof God instructs Christians that â€Å"the body of Christ† is â€Å"built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the cornerstone† (Eph. 2:20). Nevertheless, the debate is still on going if the office of the apostles and prophets ceased during the â€Å"Apostolic Age† or if it has continued on to the present day. This research paper will offer the Charismatic Movement opinion that advocates the interpretation of modern day apostles and prophets. A history of Charismatic theologyRead MoreThe Beliefs that Effect Christianity Essay1228 Words   |  5 Pagescore principles which are generally true for all of them, for example the belief of the Holy Trinity or better known as the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. This is what would be considered a primary belief. A primary belief is an idea that is a generally universal idea that is accepted by all the different sects of Christianity and must influence the secondary beliefs in the religion. For example the Holy Trinity is accepted by Roman Catholics, Protestants, Baptist, and etc. However what separatesRead MorePneumatology: Spiritual Gifts1086 Words   |  5 PagesGifts are, Gifts of God enabling the Christian to perform his or her (sometimes specializes) services. There are several words in the New Testament that s used for spiritual gifts. Pneumatikas, and char ismata are frequently found, with charismata being the most common. Charisma signifies redemption or salvation as the gift of God’s grace (Rom 5:15; 6:23) and a gift enabling the Christian to perform his services in the church (1 Cor 7:7), enabling a Christian to perform a particular ministry inRead MoreThe Spirit Of The Holy Spirit1257 Words   |  6 PagesMost of my ministry career has been spent trying to house break the Holy Spirit. As a young man I saw so many instances of ministers manipulating people to try and drum up the Holy Spirit or the people to receive the Holy Spirit that I thought the Holy Spirit needed our help if He was to move in the lives of people. I had never really seen the work or manifestations of the Holy Spirit outside of a southern Pentecostal setting. Furthermore, as a young man, I was always impressed with the EvangelistRead MoreThe 19 Major World Religions1537 Words   |  7 PagesGunnar Sloan Mrs. Lingenfelter English 11 1 March 2015 History of Christianity Of the 19 major world religions and 270 groups Christianity is one of the most well known and most common beliefs in God. Nearly a sixth of the world’s population are Christians today. It has a very important history to its believers and it has changed throughout thousands of years to become the most famous world religion there is today. Christianity did not start off as a well known and popular religion. It startedRead MoreTrinitarian Baptismal Formula1231 Words   |  5 Pagesbehold, the heavens were opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove and lighting on Him, and behold, a voice out of the heavens said, â€Å"This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well-pleased.† At the end of his earthly ministry, Jesus gave the command to his disciples to â€Å"Go, therefore, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.† As soon as they received the Holy Spirit at Pentecost, the disciples began to carry outRead MorePerspectives On Spirit Baptism : Comparative Analysis Paper1469 Words   |  6 PagesPerspectives on Spirit Baptism: Comparative Analysis Paper Nupur James Pentecostal Theology Pent 0505 Instructor: Peter Neumann Date: October 21, 2016 Spirit baptism has been an important topic in the Church for a really long time and while we discuss this topic we always have several questions rising about this issue. Churches have different perspective about the way they address the issue. The common question which arises with this topic are that, some of the Churches claimRead MoreHow Pentecostalism Is One Of The Major Denomination Of Protestant Christianity That Originated From The 19th Century1138 Words   |  5 PagesCharles Parham who taught that speaking in tongues was a spiritual gift that demonstrated as evidence of baptism with the Holy Spirit, a distinct type of baptism experienced in chapter two of the book of Acts on the day of Pentecost. On January 1st of 1901, Agnes Ozman, a student at Bethel Bible School, was the first person to speak in tongues after being baptized with The Holy Spirit. This marks the beginning of the Pentecostal Revival. In 1905, Parham began preaching in Houston, Texas where he began

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Sad Plays - Tragedies and Tear-jerkers

Have you ever noticed how some plays are such a downer? Even some plays that are supposed to be comedies, such as Anton Chekovs masterpieces, are dour and cynical and downright depressing. Of course, the theater -- like life -- isnt all about comedy and happy endings. To be reflective of human nature, playwrights often delve into the tears-soaked corners of their souls, producing literary works that are timeless tragedies that evoke both terror and pity, just how Aristotle likes it! Here is a list of theaters most hauntingly sad plays: #10 - Night Mother There are many plays that explore the topic of suicide, but few are as direct and, dare I say, as persuasive as Marsha Normans play, night Mother. During the course of a single evening, an adult daughter has a sincere conversation with her mother, clearly explaining how she plans to take her own life before dawn. The daughters miserable life has been plagued with tragedy and mental illness. However, now that she has made her decision, she has gained clarity. No matter how her mother argues and begs, the daughter will not change her mind. New York theater critic John Simon praise the playwright stating that Marsha Norman conveys the simultaneous monstrousness and ordinariness of this event: that Jessie both solicitously provides for her mothers future and abandons her, coolly matter-of-fact about what strikes most of us as the ultimate irrational act. As with many sad, tragic and controversial plays, Night Mother ends with much to contemplate and discuss. #9 - Romeo and Juliet Millions of people think of Shakespeares classic Romeo and Juliet as the ultimate love story. Romantics view the two star-crossed lovers as the quintessential young couple, forgoing the wishes of their parents, throwing caution to the proverbial wind and settling for nothing less than true love, even if it comes at the cost of death. However, theres a more cynical way of looking at this story: Two hormone-driven teenagers kill themselves because of the stubborn hatred of ignorant adults. The tragedy may be overrated and overdone, but consider the ending of the play: Juliet lies asleep but Romeo believes that she is dead so he prepares to drink poison in order to join her. The situation remains one of the most devastating examples of dramatic irony in the history of the stage. #8 - Oedipus the King Also known as Oedipus Rex, this tragedy is the most famous work of Sophocles, a Greek playwright who lived over two thousand years ago. In case you have never heard the plot of this famous myth, you may want to skip to the next play on the list. Spoiler Alert: Oedipus discovers that years ago he murdered his biological father and unknowingly married his biological mother. The circumstances are grotesque, but the real tragedy stems from the bloody reactions of the characters as each participant learns the unbearable truth. The citizens are filled with shock and pity. Jocasta hangs herself. And Oedipus uses the pins from her dress to gauge out his eyes. Well, we all cope in different ways I guess. Creon, Jocastas brother, takes over the throne. Oedipus will wander around Greece as a wretched example of mans folly. (And I assume Zeus and his fellow Olympians enjoy a mean-spirited chuckle.) Read the complete plot summary of Oedipus the King. #7 - Death of a Salesman Playwright Arthur Miller doesnt just kill off his protagonist, Willy Loman, by the end of the play. He also does his best to euthanize the American Dream. The aging salesman once believed that charisma, obedience, and persistence would lead to prosperity. Now that his sanity is wearing thin, and his sons have failed to live up to his expectations, Loman determines that he is worth more dead than alive. In my review of the play, I explain how this drama may not be my favorite of Millers work, but the play clearly accomplishes its goal: To make us understand the painfulness of mediocrity. And we learn a valuable, common sense lesson: Things dont always go the way we want them to go. #6 - Wit: There is a lot of humorous, heartwarming dialogue to be found in Margaret Edsons Wit. Yet, despite the plays many life affirming moments, Wit is filled with clinical studies, chemotherapy, and long stretches of painful, introspective loneliness. Its the story of Dr. Vivian Bearing, a hard-as-nails English professor. Her callousness is most evident during the plays flashbacks. While she narrates directly to the audience, Dr. Bearing recalls several encounters with her former students. As the pupils struggle with the material, often embarrassed by their intellectual inadequacy, Dr. Bearing responds by saying intimidating and insulting them. Yet, as Dr. Bearing revisits her past, she realizes she should have offered more human kindness to her students. Kindness is something Dr. Bearing will come to desperately crave as the play continues. If you have already experienced Wit then you know you will never look at John Donnes poetry the same way. The main character uses the cryptic sonnets to keep her intellect sharp, but by the end of the play she learns that academic excellence is no match for human compassion, and perhaps a bedtime story. Continue reading the Top Ten List of the Worlds Saddest Plays.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Homelessness The Problem Of Homelessness - 1350 Words

Homelessness There are many parts to the subject of homelessness, of course people talk about the solutions to it like The Ten Year Plan, then there is the history of it starting from the 1640’s. Also there is discussions about Homeless Shelters and more recently Anti-homeless Legislation. Then there are always the staggering statistics. The homeless is a very one minded topic for most. Most people think that the homeless should be helped, cared for, and educated for success. This is true (at least it is politically correct). Although Homelessness started in the 1640’s and has continued to be a problem today, now we have started to criminalize homelessness. There have been Anti-homelessness legislations all over Los Angeles and other areas. These legislations have made it so that†¦ â€Å"For thousands of homeless people across the country living in areas with anti-homeless laws, getting shut-eye could also mean getting handcuffed.† (Couch). There was an appeal to the court on December 6, 2005 between Jones and Los Angeles, The facts underlying this appeal are largely undisputed. Edward Jones, Patricia Vinson, George Vinson, Thomas Cash, Stanley Barger, and Robert Lee Purrie (Appellants) are homeless individuals who live on the streets of Los Angeles s Skid Row district. Appellees are the City of Los Angeles, Los Angeles Police Department (L.A.P.D.) Chief William Bratton, and Captain Charles Beck (Appellees or the City). (Jones v. City of Los Angeles). As peopleShow MoreRelatedHomelessness : The Problem Of Homelessness1479 Words   |  6 Pages Homelessness Do you think the government is really doing enough to fix the issue of homelessness?According to Lee, Dozens of homeless were left with nothing after a local Seattle organization (SHARE) closed its shelters (Lee, â€Å"Dozens of homeless camp out at county building after SHARE closes its shelters†). How could the government just let these people live without shelter? It even got to the point where the homeless were camping outside a county building because they had no other options.Read MoreHomelessness : The Problem Of Homelessness1379 Words   |  6 PagesAlthough the numbers of homelessness in the States have decreased in the past 10 years, more than 3.5 million people each year experience homelessness, with 578,424 individuals experience homelessness each night (endhomelessness.org). Many poverty-stricken people are consistently at the risk of homelessness; there is a lack of affordable housing, many jobs provide low income, and destitute people cannot afford medical care for support. However, homelessness does not only extend to the penniless -Read MoreThe Problem Of Homelessness And Homelessness Essay1286 Words   |  6 Pagesled to homelessness. These barriers may be a numerous amount of things such as substance abuse, personal trauma, unhealthy relationships, health problems, or unemployment. No matter the barrier, goals need to be set and must be realistic. If the goals seem impossible to reach they will be. Finally, there must be a commitment to following through with the set goals and a realization that this is an ongoing process that will not change overnight. There is a misinformed stigma of homelessness, whichRead MoreHomelessness : The Problem Of Homelessness Essay1182 Words   |  5 PagesThe Problem: Homelessness in Auckland Homelessness is a major issue in Auckland that is increasing rapidly over time. Generally defined by Statistics New Zealand â€Å"as living situations where people with no other options to acquire safe and secure housing: are without shelter, in temporary accommodation, sharing accommodation with a household or living in uninhabitable housing†, research has also found that there are four categories of homelessness including; without shelter e.g. living on the streets;Read MoreHomelessness Is A Problem Of Homelessness1658 Words   |  7 PagesHomelessness in Society Imagine you are homeless and have no shelter, or nowhere to go. You walk through storms in the same clothes you had on a week ago. You look around for help, but there is none. What would you do? Or imagine you are one of the forgotten ones, whom people call dirty, and disgusting. Suddenly you hear footsteps, with hope filled inside you, and then a sudden sadness strikes you as the 1378th careless person walks by you and doesn t notice you. All you want is somewhere to sleepRead MoreThe Problem Of Homelessness And Homelessness802 Words   |  4 PagesConclusion Homelessness has been an ongoing problem in the United States and it cannot be decreased until each state comes up with a plan that is affective. However, in order for this to work the economy needs to recover to the point where no one is without a job and is paid a wage that is manageable. The negative stereotypes of judging the homeless needs to be stopped and people need to be educated that homelessness can affect anyone. Although there are many services available to assist the homelessRead MoreThe Problem Of Homelessness And Homelessness1562 Words   |  7 PagesHomelessness We have already past Stone Age and marched towards the modern where we can see fascinating technology and different invention where cancer can be a cured with different medication but homeless still exists and is on the verge of increasing day by day. We can’t imagine ourselves being lost or not knowing where to go or what to do. Spending every day and night either depending on someone else or finding a shelter where you can have a nap. Waking up with the noises of the cars and otherRead MoreHomelessness : The Problem Of Homelessness1584 Words   |  7 PagesHomelessness Awareness At some point in their life, a person has seen or heard of an individual who lives on the streets. The individual who lives on the streets and holds a sign that says they need money for food is consider homeless. Sadly, these individuals are everywhere and the amount of people under this title is slowly increasing. However, in this nation we have the ability to begin decreasing that number. By providing the necessary amount of assistance required to place these individualsRead MoreHomelessness Is A Problem Of Homelessness1610 Words   |  7 PagesHomelessness is a monster. Each day, there are people on the streets suffering from homelessness. These unsheltered people litter the streets, and plead for help. There are different types of homelessness, but the most monstrous is chronic. The chronically homeless are left to endure the hardships of homelessness without hope of an effective solution. Americans disregard all homeless populations, but the most heart wrenching group that is d isregarded is the veterans. The veteran homelessness problemRead MoreHomelessness : The Problem Of Homelessness2773 Words   |  12 PagesJosh Elliott November 5, 2014 Professor Clark English 1102 Final Draft Homelessness in families has become a much more prominent problem in communities and many struggle from it as they are people who are lacking in funds causing them to be without a home. Today, homelessness among families is becoming more common and is unfortunately spreading all over the world. Most home owning people are unaware of the actuality of the conditions that the homeless people reside in and many cannot comprehend

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

ACME Corporation Case Essay Sample free essay sample

1. What are the possible ethical issues faced by acme corporation? The biggest ethical issue is that ACME is taking attention of one of their biggest client demands to travel to the grownup amusement nine. If media finds out about Acme Corp is paying for clients to travel to topographic points like this. they are traveling to believe that Acme Corp is corrupting their clients to remain with them. 2. What should Acme make if there is a desire to do moralss a portion of its core organisational values? Acme should non take attention of clients who need to travel to adult amusement nine. Acme Corp is confronting possible issue that could ache company really severely. If this gets out in media it could be really wounded full for Acme corp. I think Acme Corp should merely allow this one slide and remain a side to maintain Company’s repute. 3. Identify the ethical issues of which blunt demands to be cognizant. We will write a custom essay sample on ACME Corporation Case Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page If Frank takes attention of his client he needs to understand what effects can fall on him. If blunt decides to non take attention of the client with big amusement nine he needs to understand that client might non be happy about it. 4. Discourse the advantages and disadvantages of each determination that Frank could do. Alternate 1: Frank decides non to take attention of client with big amusement nine. Advantages: consumers will be happyDisadvantages: There is a hazard of losing one of their biggest clients. Alternate two: Frank decides to take attention of the client with big amusement nine. Advantages: In this instance Frank is non put on the lining acquiring in problem with jurisprudence or media and maintaining their repute. Disadvantages: if it gets out Acme Corp could be in problem for corrupting their clients.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Ethics in Information Technology free essay sample

Ethics in Information Technology The major issues concerning ethics with Information technology are: Privacy and Confidentiality, Freedom of Speech, Security, and Computer. When it comes to communicating on the web ones conversation are subject to another person listening or seeing the transmitted message. â€Å"Browsers track activities in history files, while Cookies dumped by web sites into information about a person and the things they look at. With the information collected by cookies from online e-commerce sites trace the purchasing patterns of the consumer. (Introna) The information gathered can give specifics on the identities of individual consumers and this information can be sold whereas leading to a breach of privacy and confidentially. If one can respect others PRIVACY on Internet or just in general the activity on the Internet can limit the chances for identity theft or other criminal activities. When it comes to freedom of speech does a person have the right to say what they want to say? People have to consider the standards of Netiquette. We will write a custom essay sample on Ethics in Information Technology or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page One may ask what Netiquette? â€Å"The rules for online behavior especially in newsgroups, discussions, and chat rooms, the Etiquette of Cyberspace. (Shea) When it comes to utilizing the internet one must follow certain rules, remember that the law on the internet should mirror real life laws. In cyberspace, the chances of getting caught seem slim. Therefore, most people seem to forget that a person is on the other side of the computer. People tend to believe that the standard of ethics is lower in cyberspace than real life. â€Å"Netiquette is all about manners and one is required to do their best to act within the laws of society and cyberspace. † (Shea) Cyber-crime, is a serious matter, where crime can be committed immediately and the results can broaden with unbelievable swiftness. Numerous crimes are being committed over the Internet due to the increase in hackers. People are hacking into bank accounts, then steal money, or manipulate systems by inserting worms or destroying databases. Some additional â€Å"examples of crimes such as hate crimes, pornography, consumer fraud, stalking, terrorism, theft of security or trade secrets, software piracy, economic espionage, and financial institution fraud. † (USDOJ) In addition, businesses have become vulnerable with millions of dollars in losses due to security breaches and worms or viruses infecting their networks. The very thought of the things that we have access to due to the internet and the progressing information technology age leads one to cringe with fear. The ethics within information technology are only as good as the ethics and morality of the people utilizing the internet and the information. Works Citied Computer Crime Intellectual Property Section. United States Department of Justice. July 28, 2009 . Introna, Lucas . Phenomenological Approaches to Ethics and Information Technology. July 21, 2009 . Shea, Virginia. Netiquette. July 21, 2009 .

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Avian Influenza Essay Example

Avian Influenza Essay Example Avian Influenza Paper Avian Influenza Paper Essay Topic: The Wild Duck Avian Influenza Introduction Bird flu in most cases begins with discomfort of lower respiratory ways and in unusual casesfrom upper respiratory air-ways. Elevated viral titer is isolated from pharynx but not from nose. Initial symptoms of the H5N1 influenza are: high grade fever, mild cold, cough and shortness of breath. Practically all patients develop viral pneumonia complicating to secondary bacterial infection, mild to severe respiratory distress, diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Conjunctivitis is entity. Sometimes gastrointestinal disorder develops earlier than respiratory symptoms. Avian influenza viruses are shed in respiratory secretions and feces of birds. Infected ducks, for example, shed virus for at least 30 days. Influenza virus from the feces of waterfowl can be recovered from surface water. Avian species develop infection that ranges from asymptomatic to lethal. Avian influenza has caused major outbreaks in poultry farms.   Influenza virus can undergo genetic mutations in hemagglutinin or neuraminidase (antigens on the surface of the virus) that can lead to epidemics. Much less commonly, a completely new hemagglutinin or neuraminidase emerges- with the new genetic material coming from animals. This genetic shift typically leads to pandemics. Early chronology: 1929 Last evidence (serologic) of circulation in humans of a swine-like influenza virus 1930 Isolation of an influenza virus from swine 1933 First isolation of an influenza virus from humans Until 1995, only three of the 15 influenza hemagglutinins that had been identified were known to cause infections in humans. Birds have all 15 identified hemagglutinins and nine neuraminidases. New influenza viruses often emerge from southern China, a region characterized by a large, densely settled human population and abundant pigs and ducks living in close proximity to humans. Until events in Hong Kong in 1997, scientists thought that avian influenza posed no direct threat to humans. In 1997, after causing influenza outbreaks on chicken farms, avian influenza (H5N1) spread to humans (Claas et al. 1998). Eighteen human cases were confirmed, six of them fatal. Infection was concentrated in children and young adults, unlike the pattern in most outbreaks where morbidity and death are most common in older adults. The virus recovered from humans was identical to that found in birds (Subbarao et al. 1998). Epidemiological studies suggested that there had been multiple independent introductions of the influenza virus into the human population from birds, but that very limited person-to-person spread occurred. At the time of the human cases, there were estimated to be 300–600 live bird markets in Hong Kong, where mixing of different avian species (ducks, chickens, pheasants, pigeons, wild birds) was possible. When the Hong Kong live bird markets were studied , 10% or more of birds were found to be shedding H5N1, in multiple avian species (geese, chickens, ducks). The birds (more than one million) were killed, and no additional human cases of H5N1 have been documented. In 1999, human infection with H9N2, another avian influenza strain widespread in Asia, was also documented for the first time in humans, at a time of enhanced surveillance (Peiris et al. 1999). The events in Hong Kong have led to heightened global surveillance for influenza in humans and animals. There was reason to be concerned about the events in Hong Kong, a densely populated city with extensive links to the rest of the world. In 1993, there were an estimated 41.4 million passenger movements (boat, train, car, airplane) and from Hong Kong. The influenza viruses that afflict humans are divided into three types: A, B, and C. Influenza A is responsible for the epidemics and infects not only man but also pigs, horses, seals, and a large variety of birds. Indeed, influenza A has been isolated worldwide from both domestic and wild birds, primarily waterbirds including ducks, geese, terns, and gulls and domesticated birds such as turkeys, chickens, quail, pheasants, geese, and ducks. Studies of wild ducks in Canada from 1975 to 1994 indicated that up to 20 percent of the juveniles were infected, and fecal samples from their lakeshore habitats contained the virus. These birds usually shed the virus from five to seven days (with a maximum of thirty days) after becoming infected even though they show no sign of the disease. Obviously, this virus and its hosts have adapted mutually over many centuries and created a reservoir that ensures perpetuation of the virus. Duck virus has been implicated in outbreaks of influenza in animal s such as seals, whales, pigs, horses, and turkeys. Extensive analysis of the viruss genetic structure, or nucleic acid sequences, supports the hypotheses that mammalian influenza viruses, including those infecting man, may well originate in aquatic birds. (Suarez DL, Spackman E, Senne DA, 2003) Subtypes of influenza A, the various strains of these avian viruses can be classified as either highly pathogenic or as of low pathogenicity, based on their genetic features and the severity of illness they cause in birds. There are currently 27 potential forms of the three subtypes of avian influenza viruses differentiated by variations in the neuraminidase surface antigen. Thus, H5, H7, and H9 avian influenza viruses, so named for their hemagglutinin surface antigen, can each be matched with nine possible neuraminidase surface antigens, N1, N2, N3, etc. Thus, there could be H5N1 through H5N9, H7N1 through H7N9, and H9N1 through H9N9 strains. H9 viruses appear to be of low pathogenicity, while H5 and H7 viruses can be highly pathogenic for birds. However, low pathogenic forms of these viruses seem to be the cause of most outbreaks among poultry causing only mild or imperceptible illness and low mortality rates. Nonetheless, both H5 and H7 can develop high levels of pathogenicity in which case mortality rates in poultry flocks can reach 100%. The natural history of avian influenza viruses is characterized by spread through infected nasal, respiratory and fecal material, and a reservoir state in healthy birds. (Pascal James Imperato, 2005) www.springerlink.com/index/H6427776HH34G857.pdf Pathogenesis The pathogenesis of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in humans has not been clearly explained. Apoptosis might also play a vital part. Apoptosis has been observed in alveolar epithelial cells, which is the major target cell type for the viral replication. Many apoptotic leukocytes were observed in the lungs of patients who died on day 6 of illness. Apoptosis may play a major role in the pathogenesis of influenza (H5N1) virus in humans by destroying alveolar epithelial cells. This pathogenesis causes pneumonia and destroys leukocytes, leading to leucopenia, which is an outstanding clinical feature of influenza (H5N1) virus in humans. Whether observed apoptotic cells were a directly related to viral replication or outcome of an over activation of the immune system needs further studies. (Uiprasertkul M, 2007) www.cdc.gov/EID/content/13/5/708.htm Infected birds were the major source of the H5N1 influenza virus among humans in Asia. Mainly humans became infected by eating infected birds, by poor hygiene procedures when cooking infected birds, or by close contact with infected poultry. (Reina J, 2002). Certain birds, particularly water birds, act as hosts for influenza viruses by carrying the virus in their intestines and shedding it. Infected birds shed virus in saliva, nasal secretions, and feces. Susceptible birds can become infected with avian influenza virus when they have contact with contaminated nasal, respiratory, or fecal material from infected birds. Fecal-to-oral transmission is the most common mode of spread among birds. Most often, the wild birds that are the hosts for the virus do not get sick, but they can spread influenza to other birds. (CDC, 2006) www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/spread.htm At present spread of the H5N1 influenza from human to human by air born route has not been registered, but enduring monitoring for identification mutation and adaptation of H5N1 influenza virus to human is needed. Most studies performed in avian viral strains elucidates that virulence is a polygenic phenomenon. However, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase and the genes codifying these substances (genes 4 and 6) play a vital role in viral pathogenesis. (Gu J, Xie Z, Gao Z, Liu J, Korteweg C, Ye J, Lau LT, Lu J, Gao Z, Zhang B, McNutt MA, Lu M, Anderson VM, Gong E, Yu AC, Lipkin WI, 2007). Avian strains can be classified as virulent or avirulent according to the capability of hemagglutinin to be triggered by endoproteases of the respiratory tract merely or by proteases from other tissues. This ability is based on the ever going mutations that lead to the substitution of the normal amino acids at the point of hemagglutinin hydrolysis by the other basic amino acids that determine the amplifi cation of the spectrum of hydrolysis and activation. Neuraminidase contributes in the acquisition of virulence through its ability to attach to plasminogen and by escalating the concentration of activating proteases. Adaptation to the host, by recognition of the cell receptor, is an additional factor determining the virulence and interspecies spread of avian strains. (Reina J, 2002) Transmission to mammals Influenza A viruses from aquatic birds grow poorly in human cells, and vice versa. However, both avian and human influenza viruses can replicate in pigs. We have known that pigs are susceptible to influenza viruses that infect man ever since the veterinarian J. S. Koen first observed pigs with influenza symptoms closely resembling those of humans. Retrospective tests of human blood indicate that the swine virus isolated by Shope in 1928 was similar to the human virus and likely responsible for the human epidemic. Swine influenza still persists year-round and is the cause of most respiratory diseases in pigs. Interestingly, in 1976, swine influenza virus isolated from military recruits at Fort Dix was indistinguishable from virus isolates obtained from a man and a pig on a farm in Wisconsin. The examiners concluded that animals, especially aquatic birds and pigs, can be reservoirs of influenza virus. When such viruses or their components mix with human influenza virus, dramatic geneti c shifts can follow, creating the potential of a new epidemic for humans. The influenza virus continually evolves by antigenic shift and drift. Early studies in this area by Robert Webster and Graeme Laver established the importance of monitoring influenza strains in order to predict future epidemics. Antigenic shifts are major changes in the structure of the influenza virus that determines its effect on immune responses. Of the viral proteins, the hemagglutinin (H), a major glycoprotein of the virus, plays a central role in infection, because breakdown of hemagglutinin into two smaller units is required for virus infectivity. (Suarez DL, Spackman E, Senne DA, 2003). Shifts in the composition of the hemagglutinin (H) or neuraminidase (N), another glycoprotein, of influenza virus were observed in the 1933, 1957, 1968, and 1977 epidemics: 1933: H1N1 1957: H2N2 (Asian flu) 1968: H3N2 (Hong Kong flu) 1977: reappearance of H1N1, called the Russian flu The reappearance in 1977 of the Russian flu, a virus first isolated in 1933, raises the uneasy possibility that a return of the 1918-19 influenza epidemics with its devastation of human life is possible and perhaps likely. In March of 1997, part of influenza virus nucleic acid was isolated from a formalin-fixed lung tissue sample of a twenty-one-year-old Army private that died during the 1918-19 Spanish influenza pandemic. Since the first influenza viruses were not isolated until the 1930s, characterization of the 1918-19 strain relied on molecular definition of the viruss RNA. Chemical evidence indicated a novel H1N1 sequence of a viral strain that differed from all other subsequently characterized influenza strains and that the 1918 HA human sequence correlated best with swine influenza strains. Once the entire sequence is on hand, a virulent marker for the influenza virus associated with killing over 675,000 Americans from 1918 to 1919 may be uncovered and a vaccine planned that might abort the return of this virus form of influenza.   When such antigenic shifts occur, the appearance of disease is predictable. Therefore, surveillance centers have been established all over the world where isolates of influenza are obtained and studied for alterations, primarily in the hemagglutinin. According to the evidence from these centers, isolates identified in late spring are excellent indicators of potential epidemics in the following winter. Both avian and human influenza viruses can replicate in pigs, and genetic reassortants or combinations between them can be demonstrated experimentally. A likely scenario for such an antigenic shift in nature occurs when the prevailing human strain of influenza A virus and an avian influenza virus concurrently infect a pig, which serves as a mixing vessel. Reassortants containing genes derived mainly from the human virus but with a hemagglutinin and polymerase gene from the avian source are able to infect humans and initiate a new pandemic. In rural Southeast Asia, the most densely populated area of the world; hundreds of millions of people live and work in close contact with domesticated pigs and ducks. This is the likely reason for influenza pandemics in China. Epidemics other than the 1918-19 catastrophes have generally killed 50,000 or fewer individuals, although within a year over one million people had been infected with these new strains. Conclusion Three major hypotheses have been put forth to explain antigenic shifts. First, as described above, a new virus can come from a reassortant in which an avian influenza virus gene substitutes for one of the human influenza virus genes. The genome of human influenza group A contains eight RNA segments, and current wisdom is that the circulating influenza hemagglutinin in humans has been replaced with an avian hemagglutinin. A second explanation for antigenic shifts that yield new epidemic viruses is that strains from other mammals or birds become infectious for humans. Some believe that this is the cause of the Spanish influenza virus epidemic in 1918-19, with the transmission of swine influenza virus to humans. A third possibility is that newly emerging viruses have actually remained hidden and unchanged somewhere but suddenly come forth to cause an epidemic, as the Russian H1N1 virus once did. H1N1 first was isolated in 1933, then disappeared when replaced by the Asian H2N2 in 1957. H owever, twenty years later the virus reappeared in a strain isolated in northern China and subsequently spread to the rest of the world. This virus was identical in all its genes to one that caused human influenza epidemics in the 1950s. (Gu J, Xie Z, Gao Z, Liu J, Korteweg C, Ye J, Lau LT, Lu J, Gao Z, Zhang B, McNutt MA, Lu M, Anderson VM, Gong E, Yu AC, Lipkin WI, 2007) Where the virus was for twenty years is not known. Could it have been inactivated in a frozen state, preserved in an animal reservoir, or obscured in some other way? If this is so, will the Spanish influenza virus also return, and what will be the consequences for the human population? In addition to antigenic shift, which signifies major changes in existing viruses, antigenic drift permits slight alterations in viral structure. These follow pinpoint changes (mutations) in amino acids in various antigen domains that relate to immune pressure, leading to selection. For example, the hemagglutinin molecule gradually changes while undergoing antigenic drift. Such mutations allow the virus to escape from attack by antibodies generated during a previous bout of infection. Because these antibodies would ordinarily protect the host by removing the virus, this escape permits the related infection to remain in the population. With these difficulties of antigenic shift and, drift and animal reservoirs, it is not surprising that making an influenza vaccine as effective as those for smallpox, pohovirus, yellow fever, or measles is difficult to achieve. Another complication is that immunity to influenza virus is incomplete; that is, even in the presence of an immune response, influenza can still occur. Nevertheless, the challenge of developing vaccines based on surveillance studies has been met. A chemically treated, formalin-inactivated virus has been formulated in a vaccine that is 30 to 70 percent effective in increasing resistance to influenza virus. The vaccine decreases the frequency of influenza attacks or, at least, the severity of disease in most recipients, although protection is not absolute. In addition, the secondary bacterial infections that may accompany influenza are today treatable with potent antibacterial drugs previously unavailable. Nonetheless, of the plagues that visit humans, influenza is among those that require constant surveillance, because we can be certain that some form of influenza will continue to return. References: CDC. Spread of Avian Influenza Viruses among Birds; Journal of Environmental Health, Vol. 68, 2006.www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/spread.htm Claas, E. C. J., A. D. M. E. Osterhaus, R. van Beek, J. C. De Jong, G. F. Rimmelzwaan, D. A. Senne, S. Krauss, K. F. Shortridge, and R. G. Webster. 1998. Human influenza A H5N1 virus related to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Lancet 351:472–477. Gu J, Xie Z, Gao Z, Liu J, Korteweg C, Ye J, Lau LT, Lu J, Gao Z, Zhang B, McNutt MA, Lu M, Anderson VM, Gong E, Yu AC, Lipkin WI. H5N1 infection of the respiratory tract and beyond: a molecular pathology study; Lancet Sep 29; 370(9593):1106-8, 2007 Pascal James Imperato. The Growing Challenge of Avian Influenza; Journal of Community Health, Vol. 30, 2005. www.springerlink.com/index/H6427776HH34G857.pdf Peiris, M., K. Y. Yuen, C. W. Leung, K. H. Chan, P. L. S. Ip, R. W. M. Lai, W. K. Orr, and K. F. Shortridge. 1999. Human infection with influenza H9N2. Lancet 354:916–917. Reina J. Factors affecting the virulence and pathogenicity of avian and human viral strains (influenza virus type A)] Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin; 20(7):346-53 (ISSN: 0213-005X) Hospital Universitario Son Dureta, Palma de Mallorca, Espaà ±a, 2002 direct.bl.uk/research/48/44/RN119578176.html Suarez DL, Spackman E, Senne DA. Update on molecular epidemiology of H1, H5, and H7 influenza virus infections in poultry in North America; Avian Dis. 2003; 47(3 Suppl): 888-97 ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez Subbarao, K., A. Klimov, J. Katz, H. Renery, W. Lim, H. Hall, M. Perdue, D. Swayne, C. Bender, J. Huang, M. Hemphill, T. Rowe, M. Shaw, X. Xu, K. Fukuda, and N. Cox. 1998. Characterization of an avian influenza A (H5N1) virus isolated from a child with a fatal respiratory illness. Science 279:393–396. Uiprasertkul M. Apoptosis and Pathogenesis of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus in Humans Emerg Infect Dis; 13(5):708-12 (ISSN: 1080-6040) Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.2007 www.cdc.gov/EID/content/13/5/708.htm

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Saudi Arabia water problem Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Saudi Arabia water problem - Term Paper Example According to Bragg and Bragg (2005), the oceans contain about 97% of the entire water on the earths’ surface; in Saudi Arabia, water has been supplied in three forms, mainly surface water, which accounts for about 10%, the underground aquifers that provide the majority percentage of more than 80%, and the various desalination plants, which provide about 5% of water. The availability of essential water supply continued to deplete and the water resources become limited, prompting the adoption of desalination plants. Natural resources define all the resources that occur freely within the environment that exist in a natural form, such as natural forests, minerals, water, and natural gases. 1. Background Desalination refers to the several processes of conversion of salt water to fresh water through the removal of salt and other minerals. Several approaches are used to treat seawater including thermal evaporation of seawater and use of modern desalination plants, osmosis in reverse. Nanomembranes are filters made from organic polymers with less thickness that are used to separate the liquids and gases at the molecular levels. Such technology is also used in desalination of seawater, purification of polluted water, and the removal of carbon dioxide and other pollutants from exhaust gases. The modern technology adopted in Saudi Arabia has enabled the exploitation of underground water by companies such as Saudi Aramco, an oil company, and hence increasing availability of water in the country. 2. Desalination process In Saudi Arabia, there has been water scarcity because of the rising population, which led to the adoption of desalination technology through the development of modern polymer materials producing semi-permeable membranes, which allow selective passage of water and other ions. The technology is categorized according to content extracted (water or salt from the main stream), separation process, and the energy used in the entire process (Anon, 1997). Eva porative processes have been used for extraction of fresh water from the mainstream. Such evaporative desalination processes consist of various methods. Multi stage flash (MSF) method involves the evaporation of seawater in chambers with low pressure as compared to the vapor pressure. The low-grade steam from the turbines heats the tubes within the distiller, which heat the seawater intake. The heated seawater then passes into low-pressure vessels, and boils into steam. The steam is condensed on heat exchanger tubes, which are cooled by the incoming water, feed to the heater. The conversion of seawater to steam depends on the pressure maintained within the vessel. In multiple effect distillation (MED), condensing steam heats tube bundles, resulting into evaporation. The vapor produced is used as steam in the next chamber operating at low pressure and temperature (Micale, Cipollina and Rizzuti, 2009). B. Nano membrane technology